Pyometra is the infection of the uterus, usually occurring in females that have not been sterilised. The uterus would be filled with pus, which would then affect the pet, making it ill. There are two types of pyometra, the first being an open pyometra where pus can be seen exiting from the vulva. The second type would be a closed pyometra, where no pus can be seen exiting from the vulva. Surgery would have to be performed to treat this condition, where the full removal of the uterus and ovaries are performed.


Caesarean section is the delivery of babies via surgery. It is usually performed as an emergency procedure when the mother dog or cat is unable deliver their babies naturally.


Uterine prolapse, though rare, can occur in your pets, where the uterus protrudes out of the cervix. General causes of this condition would include dystocia, forced fetal extraction, or excessive straining by the female dog or cat due to inflammation of the uterus. The aim of the surgery would be to reposition the uterus back to where it was originally. However, to prevent this condition from occurring, spaying your female dog would eliminate this problem entirely.


Vaginal prolapse is the protrusion of the vaginal tissue, usually swollen, through the vulva. It may resemble a donut-shaped mass. Symptoms that they may have includes pain when urinating, excessive licking of vulva, etc, and would usually occur when the female dog is in heat. The doctor would then have to surgically replace the vaginal tissues back into the vagina until the heat is completed and may remove any dead tissue to prevent inflammation again. However, to prevent this condition from occurring, spaying your female dog would eliminate this problem entirely.


Scrotal ablation is the removal of the scrotum, usually die to medical reasons such as severe trauma to the scrotum, scrotal neoplasia, testicular disease, or old dogs with pendulous scrotum.


Cryptorchidism is a genetic condition that occurs in male dogs and cats, where the testicles fail to descend from the abdomen to the scrotum. There are two types of cryptorchidism, which can be both unilateral and bilateral. The first being inguinal cryptorchidism, where the testicle has moved down from the abdomen and in the inguinal canal but did not pass through the inguinal ring. This type of cryptorchidism is more common in dogs than cats. The second type would be the abdominal cryptorchidism, which is when the testicles did not descend from the abdomen at all. Most, if not all types of cryptorchidism seen in cats are abdominal. For abdominal cryptorchidism, surgical removal of the testicles would require an incision at the abdomen, whilst most inguinal cryptorchid can be palpated at the subcutaneous tissue, thus an incision can be made over it.


Commonly seen in older intact male dogs, testicular tumours produce excessive amounts of hormones that would lead to swelling of the testicular or scrotal area. Treatment of testicular tumour would be done via surgery, where the testicles would be removed. To prevent such conditions from occurring, castrating your pet from a young age would be the best form of prevention.


Termination of pregnancy will only be done as an emergency procedure following a medical reason, such as dystocia, neonatal death or complications that could possibly lead to the endangerment of the lives of both the foetuses and the mother cat.